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Toward the other extreme, where the backdating was a result of overly informal internal procedures or even just delays in finalizing the paperwork documenting options grants, not intentional wrongdoing, there is likely to be no formal sanction—although the company may have to restate its financial statements to bring its accounting into compliance with applicable accounting rules.With respect to the more serious cases of backdating, it is likely that most of the criminal actions that the government intended to bring were brought in 2007.For instance, public companies generally grant stock options in accordance with a formal stock option plan approved by shareholders at an annual meeting.Many companies' stock option plans provide that stock options must be granted at an exercise price no lower than fair market value on the date of the option grant.Since the advent of stock option backdating, corporate policies have moved first toward a posture of encouraging backdating as a standard business practice, but then toward a posture of avoidance as public scandals emerged and investigations into fraudulent or dishonest business practices increased despite a commonly held belief that backdating was an acceptable and legal practice.

Until very recently, a company that granted stock options to executives at fair market value did not have to recognize the cost of the options as a compensation expense.However, in late 2005 and early 2006, the issue of stock options backdating gained a wider audience.Numerous financial analysts replicated and expanded upon the prior academic research, developing lists of companies whose stock price performance immediately after options grants to senior management (the purported dates of which can be ascertained by inspecting a company's Form 4 filings, generally available online at the SEC's website) was suspicious.Corporations, however, have defended the practice of stock option backdating with their legal right to issue options that are already in the money as they see fit, as well as the frequent occurrence in which a lengthy approval process is required.In 1972, a new revision (APB 25) in accounting rules resulted in the ability of any company to avoid having to report executive incomes as an expense to their shareholders if the income resulted from an issuance of “at the money” stock options.

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